P. Dhawal, M. Deodhar
Objective: Recent articles have emphasized that sun protection factors (SPF) and UV-A protection factors (UVAPF) are not sufficient parameters for measuring photoprotection. An approach ‘Beyond Sunscreen’ is currently being explored that involves adding antioxidants and antiaging actives to sunscreens to give holistic protection from UV rays. Herbal extracts containing polyphenols have antioxidative and UV-protective abilities including a class of natural benzophenones. In the current study, ethyl acetate, a green solvent, was employed in the extraction of 62.6% garcinol-enriched fraction from G. indica dried fruits rinds and was explored for non-sunscreen benefits apart from its previously reported SPF and anti-aging applications.
Methods: Several in-vitro assays were adopted to decipher the mechanistic activity of TEAE such as protection against the ultraviolet rays and/or hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity, endogenous restoration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) antioxidants in the 3T3 mice fibroblasts, and geno-protective ability in pBR322 plasmid DNA. The effect of TEAE on UV-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells was also studied.
Results: TEAE revealed cell protective effect against damage caused by different doses of UV-A and UV-B and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) alone and in combination. TEAE also showed UV-H2O2-induced DNA damage protection activity. TEAE exhibited protection by elevating the endogenous levels of GSH and SOD. TEAE showed melanin reduction that was induced by exposure to UV rays.
Conclusion: Garcinol-enriched G. indica dried fruit rinds extract serves as a potentially ideal sun-protective candidate by virtue of its previously reported sunscreen and currently highlighted non-sunscreen benefits.